Examining Dietary Diversity Across Provinces In Pakistan

  • Rabia Majeed
  • Waqar Qureshi
  • Muhammad Imad Khan
  • Muhsina Fazal


The present study analyzed household food consumption expenditure pattern across the four provinces of Pakistan. The study used Household Integrated Income and Expenditure Survey (HIIES) 2018. Food is categorized into eight groups: wheat’s flour, dairy, rice, pulses, meats, ghee-oil, fruits-vegetables, and other foods. F-test is used to find out whether there are significant changes in means of the four provinces. The study calculated household’s average monthly consumption expenditure for the eight food groups, average monthly shares of each food group and average monthly food quantity consumed. Results indicate that the proportions of expenditure on wheat flour and dairy are high. On the other hand, expenditure on rice and pulses were very small. The comparison results indicate that the household’s food expenditure patterns are different across the provinces. However, households in KP and Baluchistan for wheat flour and in Punjab and Sindh for pulses and ghee/oil are equal pattern of consumption expenditures.